Tercios were, above all, groups of a number of companies that could be attached or detached at all times. In 1618 the Peace of Augsburg unraveled and war broke out: Term. What if Eisenhower Had Driven On to Berlin? She had proclaimed herself as the saviour against the domination of Europe by the Holy Roman Emperor, but how could a nation that had been invaded warrant the status of protector of European liberties ? It started as a conflict between Protestant and Catholic states following the fragmenting of the Holy Roman Empire, but it turned into a more general conflict involving most of the great powers of Europe, becoming a war for European political pre-eminence.. King Philip IV of Spain agreed to the marriage The French Huguenot general, Rohan, was sent to help the Swiss Protestants in a campaign to overthrow the Valtelline. Because neither the empire nor the Protestants could deliver the knockout punch, the fighting dragged on and on. With this internal disruption, France could not follow a more aggressive foreign policy. France also had success in north Italy where Bernard of Weimar successfully besieged Breisach after defeating the Holy Roman Empire’s army at Rheinfelden. In March 1635, France had once again cut off the Valtelline. The war was unmatched in its duration and intensity—conflicts like the Hundred Years War actually contained long periods of peace, but the Thirty Years’ War saw fighting continue for three straight decades, making it Europe’s longest continuous conflict. The 30 Years War can be divided into five major phases:. He was later taken hostage by his own men, who demanded all pay in arrears. Besides, France and Spain had fought an undeclared but bitter frontier war for years in northern Italy and along the Spanish Road, even after the formal end of the Mantuan war in 1631. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. The hand of France was forced for her when Spanish troops marched into Trier and captured the Archbishop Elector. The majority of the citizens from the Bohemian Kingdom were Protestants. The Cardinal-Infante attacked through Picardy. Change ). French intervention—which guaranteed a great widening of the war— occurred just as Ferdinand and the German princes reached an accommodation that might have ended it: the Peace of Prague (May 30, 1635). The stratagem failed: on May 19, 1635, France declared war only on Spain. However, the ‘‘German war’’ was no longer solely a German affair: it was a general war involving all the major powers, which meant it could not be ended by a settlement crafted by Germans alone. France must now intervene herself in Flanders, Germany, Italy, and at sea. However, Sweden was too poor to continue the campaign against Ferdinand by herself. Danish phase. The Battle of Rocroi in 1643, was the first defeat of the Spanish army in over a century, and could be considered a turning point in the war. The Causes of the Thirty Years War 1618-48 The Thirty Years War consistently features on lists of major conflicts in world history. However, the Dutch had set their eyes on a naval success especially in the New World where Habsburg property was vulnerable to attack. At Wittstock (October 4, 1636), the Imperial Army lost heavily to the Swedes, so that once more the balance of power swung (as it had in the other direction after Nördlingen) and new hope for victory was raised among the Protestant princes of Europe. Swedish phase. 30 seconds . In July 1635, France signed a treaty with Savoy, Parma and Mantua for a joint campaign in north Italy. Gallas had to leave the French campaign and confront the Swedes. Up to the Peace of Prague, France had played a minimal part in the Thirty Years War. 1618-21 Bohemian Revolt; 1621-24 Palatinate phase; 1625-29 Danish intervention; 1630-35 Swedish intervention; 1636-48 French intervention; The following Timeline just lists the major battles. It is widely recognised as a period of great change, either as a gradual transition or as a sharper turning point, but always associated with … Sweden did not recover from this debacle for several years. The stunning Swedish defeat at Nördlingen confirmed Imperial control of southwest Germany and seemed to re-close a strategic ring of Habsburg lands around the perimeter of France that had been broken by Gustavus. Play this game to review World History. The Spanish made timely and generous concessions to the Swiss Protestants in the Valtelline and therefore stability was brought back to the area. Regardless of the defeat at Torgau, Sweden marched into, The causes of the Thirty Years War in Western Europe: By 1600, two camps had emerged in western Europe: France and the United Provinces The…. ( Log Out /  Like any new emperor or king, Ferdinand had to proved himself but his start was less than auspicious. In 1640-41, the Portuguese rebelled against Spain. And so, for 13 years more the armies battled. Thirty Years War: The Franco-Swedish Period France entered openly into the war in 1635. Bohemian phase. At Rheinfelden (March 2–3, 1638) a Protestant army under Bernhard von Sachsen-Weimar destroyed a Bavarian army and took Johann von Werth captive. In 1636, came the expected attack on France by the major catholic powers of Europe. Thanks to Xios, Alan Haskayne, Lachlan Lindenmayer, William Crabb, Derpvic, Seth Reeves and all my other Patrons. Huge mercenary armies did not so much fight strategic battles as constantly maneuver, plunder, and forage, all the while collecting wages of death. 30 Years War Began: Definition. They loot Germany who can't fight back and loose 1/3 of their population. In the early months on 1635, France have vacillated over a wholesale military involvement in Europe. Catholic fought Catholic and Protestant killed Protestant while each murdered, raped, tortured, and burned out the other, spreading famine, pestilence, refugees, cruelty, and death through the heart of Europe. Most of the fighting took place in the Holy Roman Empire, although the war grew to include European powers outside of the Empire.What began as a local, religious conflict became more and more continental and political with each expanding phase of the war. The Battle of Torgau forced the Swedes back to Pomerania and the Swedes could only stay in the field thanks to the financial aid given to them by the French in the Treaty of Hamburg of 1638. The death of the Cardinal-Infante in November 1641 encouraged the Dutch to press ahead. The French war against Spain continued until 1659, when the Treaty of the Pyrenees awarded France part of the Spanish Netherlands and some territory in northern Spain. Bohemian Phase: Definition. THE WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION – FRANCE, Prokhorovka – the unknown clash of the Great Patriotic War. These defections freed Swedish general Lennart Torstensson to invade Moravia and Silesia. In 1638 France and Sweden signed the Treaty of Hamburg (March 15) providing French subsidies to Sweden and foreswearing a separate peace. The Peace of Westphalia (24 October 1648), which ended the war, saw Hapsburg power much reduced. This Regency was lead by Anne of Austria, the Queen Mother, and the Italian, Mazarin. SURVEY . In January 1640, a combined Spanish and Portuguese fleet had been beaten at the Battle of Pernambuco, again by the Dutch. The Catalonians also rebelled against the domination of Castille in Spanish politics and a joint Catalan-French army defeated the Castillians outside of Barcelona in January 1641. Thirty Years War: The Danish Period. In May 1635, France declared war on Spain. Though the attack on France failed, the prestige of France as a nation had suffered. Up to the Peace of Prague, France had played a minimal part in the Thirty Years War. Entire cities were put to the sword out of revenge or reprisal. The Bohemian phase from 1618 to 1625 was sparked by the defenestration of Prague. French military involvement in the Thirty Years War got off to a poor start. Its distal causes reside in the previous century, at the political-religious settlement of the Holy Roman Empire known as the Peace of Augsburg. The Protestants were mostly Czechs which makes sense since most of them were in Prague. The German Electors had no faith in France . Sweden could provide France with the necessary military expertise. During the fourth phase (1635-48), the war was waged by the Swedish and French against Germany. It was not until the early 1640s that France settled on sound commanders and fielded well-trained armies capable of winning the war. Over 200 states of varying sizes fought in the war; causing Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden to note that … Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. In October 1639, the Dutch had beaten a Spanish fleet at the Battle of the Downs. She had an inadequate supply of men, money and commanders to sustain a long military campaign. Only in the relatively minor Mantuan episode did France have any military involvement but this was short-lived and did not involve the major European powers. Learn how your comment data is processed. These include the Bohemian Phase, the Danish Phase, The Swedish Phase and the French Phase. Thirty Years’ War (1618–48), in European history, a series of wars fought by various nations for various reasons, including religious, dynastic, territorial, and commercial rivalries. The Thirty Years' War was a conflict primarily fought in Central Europe from 1618 to 1648. Sweden wanted to gain more territory to pay for her expenses up to the Peace and she decided to carry on fighting. Granted, the French had a bit of help from the Swedes, who had switched roles from fighter to financier. In January 1643, his most competent minister, Olivares, was dismissed. France failed to capitalise on these problems as in December 1642, Richelieu had died, closely followed by Louis XIII in May 1643. The French Phase Gustavus Adolphus was killed in battle in 1632, ending Sweden’s active leadership in the Protestant cause. After the recent victory of the Catholics, Denmark felt that it's sovereignty as a Protestant country would be threatened. Q. The Spanish themselves were also experiencing problems at home. Thirty Years' War: Franco-Swedish Phase (1635-1648) Louis XIII was the only ruler who wanted the war to continue - in order to diminish Habsburg power even more. France was also out-of-touch with the more modern methods of fighting that were coming to the surface in the Thirty Years War. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Christian IV of Denmark came into the fighting, principally because of his fear of the rise of Hapsburg power in N Germany; he openly avowed religious motives but hoped also to enlarge his German possessions. The United Provinces also added to the misery of the Holy Roman Empire. Her troops were undisciplined and lacked experience in the more modern forms of fighting. With each successive phase, the war became more continental in scope, bloodier, and more focused on political power than religion. It was commonly thought that Richelieu would be dismissed as a sop to the Cardinal-Infante but Louis XIII stood by him and asked Parisians to be patriotic and supply money to the government in the defence of Paris. To sustain the above, Richelieu needed favourable finances. The Battle of Torgau forced the Swedes back to Pomerania and the Swedes could only stay in the field thanks to the financial aid given to them by the French in the Treaty of Hamburg of 1638. Louis XIII was simply pre-empting the inevitable : attack before France itself was attacked. Led by a prince of the church, Cardinal Richelieu, France finally intervened in the German war only when the gains it had earlier made by stealth in the Rhineland were assaulted and eroded by Spain. Emperor Ferdinand II won the support of Maximilian I of Bavaria. The new phase saw the German war expanded into an international conflict. In the autumn of 1636 they were summoned to Regensburg by Ferdinand. Gallas had to leave the French campaign and confront the Swedes. The Thirty Years War began in 1618 in Preview this quiz on Quizizz. The Swedish-French Phase (1635-1648) France enters the war and dominates. In February 1635, France had provided the Dutch with 20,000 men to deploy as the Dutch saw fit. It did not enter the war as a Catholic power, as Richelieu had already signed offensive treaties with Protestant Sweden and the Netherlands in expectation of fighting Catholic Austria and Spain. Louis de Bourbon, Prince of Condé (8 September 1621 – 11 December 1686). History Learning Site Copyright © 2000 - 2021. Estimates of total military and civilian deaths range from 4.5 to 8 million, mostly from disease or starvation. The Peace of Prague, arranged on Ferdinand’s terms, alarmed France, Sweden and the United Provinces. During these last years, given the strength of fortified defenses and the still unsolved problems of mid-17th century logistics, deep cavalry raiding was about the most either side could undertake. From September 1640 to October 1641, the full Imperial Diet met for the first time since 1613, to work out the negotiating positions of the Empire for any future peace talks. Gustavus’ councillor Oxenstierna replaced him in the field in Germany but lost badly at First Nördlingen (September 5–6, 1634). As the war drew to a drawn-out and exhausted close, the armies engaged shrank in size. Oxenstierna, the Swedish chancellor, anxious to preserve Sweden's hold in Germany, supported Richelieu. The military prospects of France were not good. France in the mid-1630’s was fearful of a strong and unchallenged Holy Roman Empire. … Spanish troops attacked the French in Trier in March 1635 (taking the archbishop prisoner), in an effort to establish an alternative route to the Spanish Road, which had been cut by France. The Cardinal failed to maintain his push and he too was pushed back from Paris. Its destructive campaigns and battles occurred over most of Europe, and, when it ended, the map of Europe had been irrevocably changed. ( Log Out /  The Cardinal had put up a stubborn campaign on the land but the defeat of the Spanish navy at the Battle of the Downs, meant that he could no longer be supplied by sea and the Spanish campaign in Flanders dwindled. The History Learning Site, 25 Mar 2015. Choose from 500 different sets of 30 years war flashcards on Quizlet. There had been a general European desire for peace since 1640, but no one country was prepared to give up hard-won gains. The Destruction of Army Group Center, 1944. France had to endure a three-pronged attack. In the autumn of 1636 they were summoned to Regensburg by, In October 1636, the Holy Roman Empire’s army had been defeated by the Swedes at Wittstock in Brandenburg. 30 years war DRAFT. The Thirty Years War. 10th - 11th grade. The Thirty Years’ War was a European continental war that took place from 1618-1648 (thirty years!). It was greatly aided by the cracking of Habsburg power occasioned by the revolt of Catalonia and another in Portugal in 1640. The Swedes followed up with a victory over the Saxons at Chemnitz (April 14, 1638) and occupation of Bohemia. This was due to the inability of burned and eaten out farms or serially extorted and depopulated towns to sustain relentless demands for contributions to maintain forces on the huge scale seen earlier under Wallenstein and Gustavus. The assault on Trier was designed to trigger war between France and the Holy Roman Empire. Two naval battles supported their view that the Habsburg’s could not succeed at sea. Bernard of Weimar pushed back Gallas and the attack by Phillip IV failed to materialise. The Cardinal-Infante was especially successful and many Parisians feared that their city would be occupied. Moreover, the Habsburg victory persuaded Olivares that the moment had come to throw the French off the right bank of the Rhine, where Richelieu had been planting garrisons since 1632. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! 21 Feb 2021. Tilly won a decisive victory over the forces of Fredreick V at the Battle of White Mountain, near Prague. Longer term, expanded Spanish-French fighting drew Habsburg armies away from northern Germany, permitting Sweden to slowly recover. The high taxes in France had made Richelieu a very unpopular man and the invading Catholic forces hoped to capitalise on this and be seen as a liberating force with religion not being compromised. Alsace also fell to Bernard and when he died in July 19639, his army came under the direct control of the French. This gave Sweden the opportunity to occupy most of northern Germany. In some areas of Germany, it has been suggested that up to 60% of the population died. ( Log Out /  The final stage of the Thirty Years War began. Troops of the Holy Roman Empire and Bavari commanded by Baron Tilly, invaded Bohemia. In the last phase of the Thirty Years’ War, the most dominant player on the Protestant side was Catholic France. In October 1635, Bernard of Weimar and his army were taken into French service. A determinative battle was Second Breitenfeld (November 2, 1642) where Torstensson destroyed an Imperial army and Ferdinand III’s hope to avoid major concessions to Sweden in the final settlement. Why? The other important battle of this last phase of the war was Rocroi (May 19, 1643), where the seasoned but sullen and shrunken Army of Flanders was defeated by a French army of 22,000 led by the ‘‘Great Conde´’’ (Louis II). Managed by Caboodle UX design studio in London, Citation: C N Trueman "France and the Thirty Years War", The German Electors had no faith in France . He was later taken hostage by his own men, who demanded all pay in arrears. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. In addition, the anti-Habsburg coalition did not agree on what sort of peace it should force on the Habsburg powers, with Sweden concentrating on the German war and desperate for territorial and financial compensation for its ruinous military effort and France more concerned with defeating Spain. What participation France had committed herself to involved just diplomatic and political measures. The Thirty Years War was a series of wars in Central Europe from 1618-1648. ( Log Out /  What participation France had committed herself to involved just diplomatic and political measures. The Winter King: Frederick V of the Palatinate and the Coming of the Thirty Years' War by Brennan C. … Though it got off to a poor start, the French army would eventually drive Spanish and Austrian armies back across German states. The Thirty Years War was the last religious war in Europe, and was also the bloodiest war to affect the continent before the twentieth century. Rohan was abandoned by the Swiss rebels and had to withdraw to France. This split gave hope to Vienna and Madrid that they could still win by dividing their enemies. https://great-home-decorations.com/the-30-years-war-catholics-vs-protestants By 1640, France had two very capable military commanders : Turenne and Louis II, Prince of Conde. This gave Sweden the opportunity to occupy most of northern Germany. Spain appeared to outsiders to be collapsing from within. During the Thirty Years War (1618-1648), organic flexibility was one of the basic characteristics of the armies of the Spanish Monarchy, as it had been in the previous century. Denmark was a Lutheran/Protestant country at the time of the 30 Years' War. In 1642, Phillip IV tried to crush the Catalan rebellion but failed. Learn 30 years war with free interactive flashcards. Though a German state, Trier had been under French protection since 1631. Thirty Years’ War – French Phase, 1635–1648 Posted on May 29, 2016 Gustavus’ councillor Oxenstierna replaced him in the field in Germany but lost badly at First Nördlingen (September 5–6, 1634). Over a four-year period, the warring parties of the Thirty Years’ War (the Holy Roman Empire, France, and Sweden) were actively negotiating at Osnabrück and Münster in Westphalia. Despite defeating the Spanish at the Battle of Rocroi in May 1643, France was unable to mount a serious campaign in Europe as military exhaustion had broken out throughout Europe. 4 Phases of 30 Years War: ... French: Term. The French suffered a disaster of their own at Tüttlingen (November 24–25, 1643), after which Turenne was recalled from Italy and given command of the shattered Armee´ d’Allemagne. The Thirty Years’ War is divided into FOUR PHASES: Bohemian, Danish, Swedish, and French.The Bohemian Phase was purely a local, religious conflict. 1618-1625-- Ferdinand II began to persecute Protestants-- The Defenestration of Prague- 2 officials were thrown from a window and was the opening act of Bohemian Rebellion. In October 1636, the Holy Roman Empire’s army had been defeated by the Swedes at Wittstock in Brandenburg. The four phases of the thirty years can be summarised as the Bohemian phase, Danish phase, Swedish phase and French phase, which induced the Holy Roman Empire to lose money and caused the empire to split. France was not in such a favourable position and Richelieu had to raise loans, sell government offices to the highest bidder (though not necessarily the most talented) and to place government tax inspectors (Intendants) on permanent location in the provinces to ensure that taxes that were due for Paris actually got there. They marauded over Germany, Bohemia, the Netherlands, Italy, and France, sacking cities and terrorizing populations as they battened off and burned the land. Here, they duly elected his son, Ferdinand, King of the Romans. The very wealthy merchant community of the United Provinces had wanted little military involvement in the war as they realised that any war on Dutch soil could seriously damage her overall finances. ... French phase. Barbarossa to ‘Berlog’ – Soviet Air Force, Rome Military mid-fourth century to the mid-third century BC, Rommel Recaptures Cyrenaica, January 1942, Russian Weapons, that are currently in service…, A Lesson of History: The Luftwaffe and Barbarossa. The fourteen years of the French phase of the war eventually ended in exhaustion, Germany in particular having suffered year after year of campaigning. Because the French Phase of the Thirty Years' War involved Germans, French, Dutch, Scots, Swedes, Spanish, and even Finns, historians often refer to it as the International Phase. They believed that if the Dutch were seen by the Holy Roman Empire to be getting involved militarily in the conflict, it could lead to an invasion of the United Provinces by a Imperial army and that could spell disaster for the Dutch economy. The Thirty Years War began in 1618 in. The end of the Thirty Years' War left Hapsburg Spain isolated. France, therefore, needed alliances. The siege of Breisach was a success and allowed the French to cut the Spanish Road once more. Holy Roman Empire promised tolerance of Protestantism in Hungary after more Habsburg defeats in 1645. The Suomen Ilmavoimat (Finnish Air Force). Louis XIII would then pre-emptively strike before France itself was attacked. Especially since its Lutheran leader, Christian IV, was also a duke of the Holy Roman Empire. Henri de la Tour d’Auvergne, Vicomte de Turenne (11 September 1611, Sedan, Ardennes – 27 July 1675). This threat persuaded Richelieu that France must enter the war directly at long last, that fighting the Habsburgs through subsidized proxies was no longer enough. The Bohemian Phase was the start of the 30 Years war. The new king, Louis XVI, was only four years of age and a Regency had to be established. The French Phase
1634 – 1648
The French were threatened by the growing strength of the Habsburgs
France declared war on Spain and increased its pressure on the H.R.E.
The French and Swedish gained much land during the later years of this phase
10. The Thirty years war was made up of many different wars, to understand it better I will be grouping them into 4 phases. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Not every German prince waited: in July 1641, Friedrich Wilhelm (1640– 1688), the new ‘‘Great Elector’’ of Brandenburg, agreed to a ceasefire with Sweden; in January 1642, the Welf dukes of Brunswick also dropped out of the war (Treaty of Goslar). In February 1637, Ferdinand died and his son succeeded him as Ferdinand III. The end of the war was not brought about by one treaty, but instead by a group of treaties, … No-one throughout Europe was particularly surprised by this as in October 1634, the Holy Roman Emperor, King of Spain and the Roman Catholic princes of Germany had agreed to a joint attack on France. Loot Germany who ca n't fight back and loose 1/3 of their population saw the German War expanded an... That could be attached or detached at all times had an inadequate supply of men, who demanded pay... 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